Neck deep (front to back) hierarchy is clear, namely: skin, superficial fascia, deep cervical fascia, muscles. Divided into superficial and deep fascia, deep three-layer, formed between the deep and shallow and medium sheath, accommodated through the neck, trachea, esophagus, and blood vessels. Each layer of loose connective tissue and form the neck gaps.
Skin: the skin thin, mobility, skin texture horizontal.
Second, the superficial fascia: fascia of osteoporosis, including muscle, vein, nerve, lymph nodes.
1, muscle: muscle platysma myocutaneous platysma, thin and wide coverage. From the face down to the second rib plane over the ossification of the body in the first two bones clavicle and overall length of the shallow surface of the mandible, lower part of the middle line of the neck and anterior cervical triangle not covered by this muscle. In the superficial fascia of the skin nerves and veins were in the deep surface of the muscle, the muscle therefore becomes important signs of superficial fascia of this level.
2, venous and lymph node metastasis: skin vein anterior jugular anterior jugular vein and jugular vein Externa jugularis vein, accompanied by lymph nodes around it. Roots two jugular veins were involved in the formation of the deep cervical fascia two gaps on the sternum and supraclavicular clearance and anastomotic branch of the rampage.
3, cutaneous nerve: nerve for the cutaneous branches of the cervical Plexus, with lesser occipital nerve and greater Auricular nerve, transverse cervical, supraclavicular nerve. Cutaneous nerve from the midpoint of the posterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid muscles to walk on all sides, with lesser occipital nerve hooks around the accessory nerve after rising along the posterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, lift the lesser occipital nerve can hook the accessory nerve, is a sign of accessory nerve, and the posterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is looking for lesser occipital nerve logo. Great Auricular nerve vertical line to the ear lobe. Transverse cervical nerve vertically across the middle of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Supraclavicular nerve and accessory nerve approximately parallel, but below it.